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Author: Wagoner MD, Anterior Segment/External Disease Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Journal: Surv Ophthalmol 1997 Jan-Feb;41(4):275-313
Abstract: Chemical injuries of the eye may produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, and anterior segment, resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Pathophysiological events which may influence the final visual prognosis and which are amenable to therapeutic modulation include 1) ocular surface injury, repair, and differentiation, 2) corneal stromal matrix injury, repair and/or ulceration, and 3) corneal and stromal inflammation. Immediately following chemical injury, it is important to estimate and clinically grade the severity of limbal stem cell injury (by assessing the degree of limbal, conjunctival, and scleral ischemia and necrosis) and intraocular penetration of the noxious agent (by assessing clarity of the corneal stroma and anterior segment abnormalities). Immediate therapy is directed toward prompt irrigation and removal of any remaining reservoir of chemical contact with the eye. Initial medical therapy is directed promoting re-epithelialization and transdifferentiation of the ocular surface, augmenting corneal repair by supporting keratocyte collagen production and minimizing ulceration related to collagenase activity, and controlling inflammation. Early surgical therapy if indicated, is directed toward removal of necrotic corneal epithelium and conjunctiva, prompt re- establishment of an adequate limbal vascularity, and re-establishment of limbal stem cell population early in the clinical course, if sufficient evidence exists of complete limbal stem cell loss. Re-establishment of limbal stem cells by limbal autograft or allograft transplantation, or by transfer in conjunction with large diameter penetrating keratoplasty, may facilitate development of an intact, phenotypically correct corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell transplantation may prevent the development of fibrovascular pannus or sterile corneal corneal ulceration, simplify visual rehabilitation, and improve the visual prognosis. Advances in ocular surface transplantation techniques which allow late attempts at visual rehabilitation of a scarred and vascularized cornea include limbal stem cell transplantation for incomplete transdifferentiation and persistent corneal epithelia.
Thanks for the opportunity to sing the praises of the Morgan Lens! Those of us who have been in the field for a while wonder what we ever did without them! We find two general uses for the lenses. One is for contact irritation: most typically, splashes. After local anesthetic, for ease of insertion, the lenses fit comfortably on patients of all ages and provide gentle and thorough irrigation of irritant substances. We have many cases of this type. The second most common use is for patients show suffer multiple injuries due to automobile accidents, major trauma, burns, falls, etc. Not only does the lens thoroughly irrigate the eye, removing most or all of the debris that has accumulated, it more importantly frees up the nurse's hands so that she can perform other lifesaving functions. Quite frankly, eye irrigation was treated as "the bottom of the list" often because other patient's other injuries were more devastating with higher morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the burn patient, the soothing effect of the irrigation and potential to prevent infection or further injury, make it an easy to use, valuable asset for patient care.Registered Nurse (Montana)
The Morgan Lens is used in 90% of hospital emergency departments in the USA and can be inserted in less than 20 seconds. There simply is no other "hands-free" method of eye irrigation. Nothing else frees medical personnel to treat other injuries or to transport the patient while irrigation is underway. Nothing is more effective at treating ocular chemical, thermal, and actinic burns or removing non-embedded foreign bodies, even when the patient's eyes are closed tightly. Its design makes it simple and straightforward to use so minimal training is required.