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Author: Delman K. Malek SK. Bundz S. Abumrad NN. Lang CH. Molina PE, Department of Surgery, State University of New York at Stony Brook
Publication: Shock. 5(4):298-303, 1996 Apr
The toxicity of D-lactate has been recognized for almost 30 years. This compound is found in the racemic mixture of lactated Ringer’s solutions routinely used for peritoneal dialysis and the resuscitation of trauma victims. The current study was designed to investigate whether toxicity occurred at the D-lactate concentrations achieved during hemorrhage resuscitation with racemic lactated Ringer’s solution. Conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were monitored for electrocardiographic abnormalities while undergoing hemorrhage and subsequent resuscitation with either L-lactated, D-lactated, or racemic lactated Ringer’s solution. The rats infused with D-lactate showed significant toxicity as evidenced by bradycardia, premature ventricular contractions, and ventricular fibrillation. No such alterations were observed in the animals resuscitated with L-lactate or racemic solutions. Resuscitation with the racemic lactate mixture increased the D-lactate concentrations in the blood, but was not associated with overt changes in cardiac rhythm. The infusion of the different resuscitation fluids produced few significant differences in acid-base status of hemorrhaged rats. These findings indicate that although toxicity may be achieved with a Ringer’s solution containing only D-lactate, resuscitation using the racemic mixture does not achieve D-lactate concentrations high enough to be detrimental to the animal.
I have always found the Morgan Lens to be beneficial especially to patients who arrive in the ED with complaints of foreign body in the eye. After a rapid triage evaluation, MD exam, tetracaine for the eye, the patient is not in any distress and the Morgan Lens is helpful in removing foreign bodies.Registered Nurse (New York)
The Morgan Lens is used in 90% of hospital emergency departments in the USA and can be inserted in less than 20 seconds. There simply is no other "hands-free" method of eye irrigation. Nothing else frees medical personnel to treat other injuries or to transport the patient while irrigation is underway. Nothing is more effective at treating ocular chemical, thermal, and actinic burns or removing non-embedded foreign bodies, even when the patient's eyes are closed tightly. Its design makes it simple and straightforward to use so minimal training is required.